During the 16th century, Europe began to outpace the Arab world in the export traffic, with its slave traffic from Africa to the Americas.
The Dutch imported slaves from Asia into their colony in South Africa.
The population of the Kanem was about a third slave. Between 17 from one- to two-thirds of the entire population of the Fulani jihad states consisted of slaves.
The population of the Sokoto caliphate formed by Hausas in northern Nigeria and Cameroon was half-slave in the 19th century.
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The history of slavery spans many cultures, nationalities, and religions from ancient times to the present day.
"Slavery came in different guises in different societies: there were court slaves, slaves incorporated into princely armies, domestic and household slaves, slaves working on the land, in industry, as couriers and intermediaries, even as traders".The Byzantine–Ottoman wars and the Ottoman wars in Europe resulted in the taking of large numbers of Christian slaves, especially amongst the Slavic peoples of Central and Eastern Europe.Slavery became common within much of Europe during the Dark Ages and it continued into the Middle Ages.In the 19th century at least half the population was enslaved among the Duala of the Cameroon, the Igbo and other peoples of the lower Niger, the Kongo, and the Kasanje kingdom and Chokwe of Angola.Among the Ashanti and Yoruba a third of the population consisted of slaves.Prior to the 16th century, the bulk of slaves exported from Africa were shipped from East Africa to the Arabian peninsula. Arab slave traders differed from European ones in that they would often conduct raiding expeditions themselves, sometimes penetrating deep into the continent.